December 26, 2018 - 12:00 am
AddressKoc University Rumelifeneri Campus, Faculty of Social Sciences Building, SOS143 View map
MiReKoc Seminar Series continues with Bahija Jamal’s presentation on ‘Moroccan Counter-terrorism and Human Trafficking policies and the Perception of ISIS Moroccan Women: Are they Perpetrators or Victims?’. The presentation and discussion will take place on Wednesday, December 26th, 2018, at 12:00, in SOS143. Registration is required for participants not affiliated with Koç University.
Moroccan Counter-terrorism and Human Trafficking policies and the Perception of ISIS Moroccan Women: Are they Perpetrators or Victims?
For centuries, Morocco’s geographical location attracted migratory flow. Morocco is a land of emigration, transit, asylum and also a coveted location for international and regional traffickers, smugglers and terrorist networks. Morocco as many countries is confronted to certain criminal activities which transcend national jurisdictions such as: migrants smuggling, human trafficking and terrorist activities money laundering, cyber criminality, illicit drug trafficking, that all have actual or potential effect across national borders. In order to shed light on forms of transnational organized crimes affecting Morocco( State and population) the analyses is limited to two forms which are terrorism and human trafficking. Terror threats in Morocco have become more frequent in recent years as Islamic radicalism has spread throughout North Africa. The country has been targeted by terrorist attacks that started with suicide bombing attacks in Casablanca in 2003 and further attacks in 2007 and 2011. According to the Central Bureau of Judicial Investigation (CBJI), 1,664 Moroccan nationals are fighting with Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) armed and 596 have been killed there, while 2.870 have been jailed. CBJI indicates in a recent early in 2018 that Moroccan women are also amongst female ISIS migrants as fighters and recruiters. 300 women have joined ISIS including 150 minors, while 150 of them have returned back to Morocco. Morocco is as well confronted to human trafficking phenomenon. It is a source, destination, and transit country for victims human trafficking. Moroccan men, women residing abroad are exploited in forced labor and sex trafficking, primarily in Europe, the Middle East and in some African countries. For instance, Moroccan women are particularly forced into prostitution and are considered recently as sex object (ISIS brides) in the holy land of “Al-Khilafa”. Moroccan women are at the crossroad of terrorism and human trafficking. These women could be actors of terrorism as well as victims of human trafficking. Some of them are lured in a way that affects their decision to join the ranks of the ISIS extremist group. To confront these forms of transnational organized crimes, Morocco has developed many legal and institutional measures. Since 2003, counterterrorism is treated in Morocco as a top policy priority, which is based on a multidimensional and integrated approach. Likewise, in 2016 Morocco has enacted a new law on human trafficking and adopted a broader definition of exploitation that includes the exploitation of a person to commit criminal acts or to get forcibly involved in armed conflicts. This presentation aims to explore the Moroccan Counter-terrorism policy and the current perception of Moroccan women of ISIS (I); and to provide insight into the new perception of these women, particularly the returnees, within the context of anti- human trafficking Moroccan policy (II).
Bahija Jamal is an associate professor of International Law and International Relations at Hassan II University in Casablanca, Morocco. She is also the president of the NGO “Ofoq/Horizon on the Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking” and a consultant on Combating Human Trafficking at the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Council of Europe.
Bahija Jamal is a former staff member at the Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs. She also worked for UNHCR and was a former senior advisor to UNODC, UNESCO and ICRC. Areas of specialization include international Law, migration, asylum, combating human trafficking and terrorism.